Patients of Dr. Timothy Tollestrup, and Dr. Tollestrup himself, have shared some insights in their journeys to pain-free living in these video testimonials.

piriformis syndromevideos
October 13, 2020

Piriformis Syndrome Success Story My name is Alison, and this is my story about overcoming piriformis syndrome. Nobody could diagnose me for a while and I started on opiate pain medicine. Within six…
Dr. Tollestrup Blogperipheral neuropathyvideos
October 13, 2020

Permanent Relief From Peripheral Neuropathy with Dr. Tollestrup

In this Facebook Live video Dr. Tollestrup discusses how he can offer patients with Peripheral Neuropathy permanent relief with Peripheral Nerve Surgery. If they have nerve compression the success rate…
nerve painDr. Tollestrup Blogperipheral neuropathyvideos
October 12, 2020

What Causes Nerve Pain? Dr. Tollestrup Discusses.

In this Facebook Live video Dr. Tim Tollestrup discusses the causes for nerve pain and how he can offer patients with nerve pain long-term solutions through Peripheral Nerve Surgery. About…
Meralgia Parestheticavideos
October 6, 2020

Meralgia Paresthetica: Inside Dr. Tollestrup’s Operating Room Meralgia Paresthetica is a common problem that can be a complicated pain issue to resolve. In this video we go inside the operating room with Dr. Tim Tollestrup to…
Thoracic Outlet Syndromevideos
September 18, 2020

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Pain Gone After Nerve Surgery

"Please go see Dr. Tollestrup!" Moira makes an emotional plea for people suffering from chronic pain. Dr. Tollestrup relieved her excruciating shoulder pain after she was incorrectly diagnosed with Cubital…
Thoracic Outlet Syndromevideos
September 10, 2020

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Healed with Nerve Surgery

"He knew exactly what to do when the other doctors didn't know anything." Moira had horrible shooting pain down her left arm that radiated down into her hand and fingers.…
piriformis syndromevideos
September 1, 2020

Piriformis Muscle Release vs. Piriformis Muscle Removal In this fascinating video, Dr. Tim Tollestrup takes you to into his OR to show the difference between Piriformis Release and Piriformis Removal Surgery. His patient Kasey had debilitating…
Patient Storiesvideos
August 17, 2020

Injured Veteran Gets Relief with Nerve Surgery

Michael tried for years to get relief through the VA for his injured foot. None of his doctors could come up with a clear diagnosis, telling him he would have…
Dr. TollestrupPatient Storiespiriformis syndromevideos
July 26, 2020

Piriformis Syndrome Pain Gone Immediately After Surgery

"I would fall, trip and stumble when I walked. I had canes and crutches. Life was miserable." This was Frank's situation before Piriformis Syndrome surgery with Dr. Tollestrup to remove…
Dr. Tollestruppiriformis syndromevideos
July 7, 2020

Military Vet Overcomes Pain from Piriformis Syndrome

"The words, sentences and paragraphs I have written to describe the miraculous surgeries Dr. T performed on me are still inadequate to describe the joy and relief I have right…
Dr. TollestrupNerve Surgeryvideos
June 20, 2020

Why There Are So Few Peripheral Nerve Surgeons Who Focus on Chronic Pain?

Dr. Tim Tollestrup is one of only a handful of chronic pain focused Peripheral Nerve Surgeons worldwide. In this video blog he explains why Peripheral Nerve Surgery is such a…
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)CRPSDr. Tollestrupvideos
June 15, 2020

Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome – CRPS Pain Gone: Patient Update One Year Later

For years, Robin suffered from horrible, burning pain in her arm and wrist. Doctors diagnosed her with CRPS also called Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome and told her she would have…
Dr. TollestrupNerve Surgeryperipheral neuropathyvideos
June 2, 2020

Raising Awareness for Peripheral Nerve Surgery as a Treatment for Chronic Pain

Patients with chronic pain deal with frustration in addition to their suffering, There is a pervasive lack of understanding about how to treat chronic pain. in this video blog, Peripheral…
Dr. TollestrupThoracic Outlet Syndromevideos
May 29, 2020

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome from Facebook Live with Dr. Tollestrup

Dr. Tollestrup talks about Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
Dr. Tollestruppiriformis syndromevideos
May 28, 2020

Life-Changing Surgery for Patients with Piriformis Syndrome Peripheral Nerve Surgeon Dr. Tim Tollestrup developed a surgery to remove rather than release the piriformis muscle for patients who are suffering from chronic sciatica, back, leg, foot and…
Dr. Tollestrupperipheral neuropathyvideos
May 12, 2020

Chronic Pain Relief Patient with Multiple Peripheral Nerve Problems

Over five years, Dr. Tollestrup performed multiple nerve decompression and denervation surgeries on Gail including a piriformis muscle removal. Dr. Tollestrup calls her one of the most complex patients he…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogMeralgia Parestheticavideos
May 6, 2020

Meralgia Paresthetica In Depth Analysis & Treatment Solutions

Dr. Tollestrup talks about Meralgia Paresthetica and surgical solutions.
Chronic Pain After SurgeryChronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDr. Tollestrupvideos
May 5, 2020

Low Back Pain Not Solved by Spine Surgery: Causes, Treatments

In this Facebook Live session Dr. Tollestrup discusses chronic low back pain that is not resolved by spine surgery or other treatment methods. He introduces the superior cluneal nerves which…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogMeralgia ParestheticaPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
May 1, 2020

Meralgia Paresthetica Healed Through Nerve Surgery

Russell suffered for 20 years with burning pain is his thigh. No one could diagnose or treat his pain until he found Dr. Tim Tollestrup, a chronic-pain focused Peripheral Nerve…
Chronic Pain After SurgeryChronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
March 19, 2020

Chronic Groin Pain Gone After Nerve Surgery

"I woke up in the recovery room and my pain was gone!" Bernie suffered with horrible, burning groin pain for 11 years. He saw many different specialists but none of…
news and eventspiriformis syndromesuccess storiesUncategorizedvideos
March 19, 2020

Patient Update SIx Months After Piriformis Muscle Removal Surgery

Dr. Tollestrup removed Rhoderick's piriformis muscle six months ago, relieving him of the pain that compromised his life for many years. Here is a video sharing Rhoderick's status six months…
Failed Spine Surgerynews and eventspiriformis syndromevideos
February 24, 2020

Piriformis Syndrome Success Story

Carolyn endured hip scopes and back surgeries that did not alleviate her excruciating sciatica pain. At her wit's end, she flew from her home in Dallas to see Dr. Tim…
Chronic Pain After SurgeryDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgeryNerve Surgerynews and eventssuccess storiesvideos
February 19, 2020

Ten Years of Nerve Pain Healed Through Peripheral Nerve Surgery

William suffered for 10 years and tried every treatment imaginable to relieve nerve pain in the left perineal area. Finally, a doctor near his hometown of Washington D.C. referred him…
Disconnecting NervesDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgerynews and eventsPatient Storiespiriformis syndromesuccess storiesvideos
February 10, 2020

Lucy’s Long Healing Journey to Overcome Piriformis Syndrome

Lucy saw three spine surgeons and three neurologists for the pain and numbness in her buttocks and legs. None of them could diagnose let alone treat her effectively. After hearing…
ArthoplastyChronic Pain After SurgeryFailed Hip or Knee SurgeryKnee Replacementnews and eventsPatient Storiespiriformis syndromevideos
January 31, 2020

Persistent Knee Pain After Knee Replacement Surgery

Frances endured three knee surgeries yet her excruciating pain remained. In fact, it was getting worse with each surgery. No doctor would touch her including the orthopedic surgeon who did…
Dr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventsPatient Storiespiriformis syndromeSciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromesuccess storiesvideos
November 15, 2019

Piriformis Syndrome Explained: A Vlog from Dr. Tim Tollestrup

In this video blog Dr. Tim Tollestrup outlines everything you need to know about Piriformis Syndrome starting with sciatica pain, diagnosis and treatment options. Dr. Tollestrup pioneered the surgery to…
Dr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventsPatient Storiespiriformis syndromesuccess storiesvideos
November 4, 2019

Global Reach: Dr. Tollestrup Operates on Chronic Pain Patients from all over the World

Nissrin is a chronic pain patient from Baghdad, Iraq. For years she suffered from Piriformis Syndrome pain. Desperate for relief she researched online and found Dr. Tim Tollestrup in Las…
Dr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventspiriformis syndromesuccess storiesvideos
October 24, 2019

Overcoming Piriformis Syndrome Pain Through Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Barbara's healing journey after Piriformis Muscle removal surgery was long and difficult. But thanks to her tenacity and Dr. Tollestrup's skill and dedication she is back at full strength. Now…
news and eventspiriformis syndromesuccess storiesvideos
September 23, 2019

Piriformis Syndrome Healed with Nerve Surgery

Susan suffered from glute pain for years but could not find relief. Then a series of circumstances led her to Dr. Tollestrup which she calls "a miracle." He removed her…
Chronic Pain After SurgeryDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup BlogNerve Surgerynews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
August 29, 2019

Young Teen Gets His Life Back with Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Brennan's story is one of the most powerful we have shared. In the prime of his life, this young athlete could barely walk after groin hernia surgery. During that surgery,…
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)CRPSsuccess storiesvideos
August 22, 2019

How Robin Beat CRPS with Peripheral Nerve Surgery

After a surgical biopsy to remove a mass, Robin had horrible, burning pain in her hand and arm. A doctor in her hometown in Idaho diagnosed with her Complex Regional…
Chronic HeadachesMigraine/Chronic Headachesnews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
August 6, 2019

Peripheral Nerve Surgery for Migraine Headaches

Migraine Headaches Relieved After Years of Suffering Dana suffered a peripheral nerve injury when she was four years old. As a result she had excruciating Migraine Headaches for her entire…
Chronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgeryNerve Surgerynews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
July 19, 2019

Pain After Toe Amputation Resolved with Nerve Surgery

For decades, Shelby suffered through unsuccessful surgeries and finally a toe amputation. Doctors continued to believe the pain stemmed from a musculoskeletal problem. Finally she found a doctor who didn't…
peripheral neuropathysuccess storiesvideos
July 8, 2019

Nerve Surgery for Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral nephropathy is one of the most common types of peripheral nerve disorders. Conventional wisdom in the medical community considers it to be progressive and incurable. But that's just not…
Sciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromevideos
July 8, 2019

Mysterious Sciatica Pain

Monique suffered with a mysterious pain radiating into her leg, foot and back. None of the doctors she saw could help her so she resigned herself to a sedentary lifestyle.…
Chronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDisconnecting NervesDr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgeryNerve Surgerynews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
May 16, 2019

Superficial Peroneal Nerve Pain

Daniel had horrible pain in his ankle radiating to the top of his foot that he rated at a level 10! After surgery to properly treat his Superficial Peroneal Nerve…
nerve pain surgeryChronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDisconnecting NervesDr. Tollestrup BlogPatient StoriesUncategorizedvideos
May 8, 2019

Peripheral Nerve Surgery Helps Patient Overcome 11 Years of Chronic Pain

Denervation surgery saved Ronald after a decade of chronic pain. Ronald injured his left side in a watercraft accident on patrol in his job as a Deputy Sheriff. He shattered…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogMeralgia Parestheticanews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
May 8, 2019

Meralgia Paresthetica Pain Healed with Nerve Surgery

Beverly had horrible back and leg pain. She saw many doctors but no one could figure out the cause of her pain until she found Dr. Tim Tollestrup. Dr. Tollesrup…
Dr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesThoracic Outlet Syndromevideos
May 7, 2019

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Healed with Nerve Surgery

Elma was in constant pain after a fall badly injuring her arm and shoulder. Luckily she found Dr. Tim Tollestrup, one of only a handful of surgeons in the world…
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)CRPSDr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup BlogNerve Surgerysuccess storiesvideos
May 2, 2019

CRPS Pain Gone After 27 Years

Sunday suffered from debilitating CRPS pain for more than two decades. She was "living in a state of despair" spending most days on her couch. But she never gave up…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogPatient Storiespiriformis syndromeSciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromesuccess storiesvideos
May 2, 2019

Piriformis Syndrome Healed After Injured Veteran Suffers for 30 years

Before dealing with Piriformis Syndrome, Grace was "lean, mean fighting machine" in the U.S. Marines until a training accident destroyed her career and her life. She suffered for 30 years…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogMeralgia Parestheticanews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
April 7, 2019

Meralgia Paresthetica Pain Relieved with Nerve Surgery

John had burning and numbness in his thighs and hips. After 10 years of pain and frustration, he found Dr. Tim Tollestrup who diagnosed him with Meralgia Paresthetica. Dr. Tollestrup…
Back PainDr. Tollestrup Blogvideos
January 14, 2019

Low Back Pain Caused by Superior Cluneal Nerve Entrapment

In this video blog, Dr. Tollestrup explains how low back pain is not always caused by a spine problem. Patients with a clear MRI and pain on the side of…
leg pain surgeryChronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaFoot Pain/Failed Morton’s Neuroma Surgeryvideos
January 14, 2019

Former Athlete Finds Relief from Leg and Foot Pain

As an ex-athlete, Willie thought he could ignore the stabbing leg and foot pain. But he couldn't sleep at night and was irritable and unproductive during the day. He knew…
nerve surgery pain freeChronic Pain After Surgery/Traumavideos
January 14, 2019

Back to Square Dancing Thanks to Nerve Surgery

Susan saw more than a dozen doctors to get relief for her leg pain. No one could solve her pain problem. Luckily she never gave up the hope of finding…
nerve pain surgerypiriformis syndromevideos
January 14, 2019

Pain Free Life Found Through Surgery for Piriformis Syndrome

Cathy was terrified by the idea of living the rest of her life in debilitating pain. No one could diagnose her problem until she met Dr. Tim Tollestrup. He removed…
nerve pain surgerypiriformis syndromevideos
January 14, 2019

Back and Leg Pain from Scorpion Sting Alleviated

Beverly was bitten by a Scorpion that left her with horrible back and leg pain. Many doctors told her the pain was in her head. She knew better. She never…
Dr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blogvideos
December 11, 2018

The Difference Between Peripheral Nerve Surgery and Pain Management

Peripheral Nerve Surgery Aims for Long-Term Solutions Dr. Tollestrup compares what he does and what pain management doctors do for patients with chronic pain. His patients not only feel different…
Dr. TollestrupDr. Tollestrup Blogvideos
December 11, 2018

Dr. Tollestrup’s Love of Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Nerve Surgeon Discusses What Matters Most to Him with His Work Dr. Tim Tollestrup describes his love of surgery and the intellectual challenge of Peripheral Nerve Surgery. He is always…
peripheral neuropathyvideos
December 11, 2018

Chronic Pain Patients Thank Dr. Tollestrup for Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Peripheral Nerve Surgery Helps Those with Pain Feel Better Patients of Dr. Tim Tollestrup describe how he changed their lives through peripheral nerve surgery. Frank was addicted to opioid medication,…
peripheral neuropathyvideos
December 11, 2018

Failed Back Surgeries Lead to Successful Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Lydia’s Story – Failed Back Surgeries Lead to Successful Peripheral Nerve Surgery Lydia suffered from pain in her leg, hip and low back. Two back surgeries did not help. Then…
peripheral neuropathyvideos
December 11, 2018

Nerve Surgery Changes April’s Life

April's Nerve Surgery Success Story April, a patient of Dr. Tim Tollestrup, tells her story about how nerve surgery helped her get back to living the life she wanted with…
peripheral neuropathyvideos
December 11, 2018

James’s Peripheral Neuropathy Success Story

With Peripheral Neuropathy Pain Gone James was at the point where his peripheral neuropathy pain was so bad that he could not get out of bed. After 30 trips to…
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)videos
December 10, 2018

Nerve Surgery Helps Patient Beat CRPS

Katie Living Well After Nerve Surgery for CRPS CRPS is not a life sentence. Katie was in a wheelchair for two years. Then she met Dr. Tollestrup. Watch her story…
Chronic Pain After Surgery/Traumavideos
December 10, 2018

Nerve Pain After Knee Surgery Relieved

Dr. Tollestrup Helps Patient Referred by Daughter Robert had terrible pain and cramping in his calf after knee surgery. Very often the trauma of an orthopedic surgery can cause nerve…
Hand/Arm Pain- Carpal Tunnel Syndromevideos
December 10, 2018

Nerve Surgery Helps Travis Heal after Nine Years of Pain

Nerve Surgery Helps with Hand Pain Travis is a young father and husband who was injured at work nine years ago. Many doctors told him he would never work again.…
Failed Spine Surgeryvideos
December 10, 2018

Surgically Removing Superior Cluneal Nerves Relieves Persistent Back Pain

Dr. Tollestrup Helps Patient with Nerve Surgery for Back Pain Persistent back pain plagued Missy more than a year after spinal fusion surgery. She tried dozens of treatments but nothing…
Nerve Surgerypiriformis syndromeSciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromevideos
December 10, 2018

Sciatica Pain and Piriformis Syndrome Addressed by Nerve Surgery

A Long Battle With Pain Helped by Dr. Tim Tollestrup and Nerve Surgery Daniel had horrible sciatica pain radiating down into his legs and feet. He had ten surgeries but…
Nerve SurgerySciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromevideos
December 10, 2018

Sciatica Pain Gone Thanks to Peripheral Nerve Surgery to Remove Piriformis Muscle

Dr. Tim Tollestrup Piriformis Surgery Helps Woman Regain Life Bonnie suffered from sciatica pain for years and tried many different treatments. She even had surgery to release her Piriformis Muscle.…
Chronic Pain After SurgeryDisconnecting NervesFailed Hip or Knee SurgeryNerve Surgerysuccess storiesvideos
May 17, 2018

Disconnecting Nerves During Nerve Surgery Relieves Pain After Three Failed Hip Revisions

Successful Nerve Disconnection Surgery Has Margaret Back in the Swing Margaret Botts shares her story of recovery after successful nerve surgery. Her hope is to educate others with similar problems…
ArthoplastyChronic Pain After SurgeryDr. Tollestrup BlogFailed Hip or Knee SurgeryKnee ReplacementNerve SurgeryPain after Knee Surgerysuccess storiesvideos
March 29, 2018

Denervation Surgery Helps Knee Pain After Knee Arthoplasty

Knee Pain After Knee Arthroplasty Larry had a total knee arthroplasty but after the surgery, he still had constant knee pain. He had decreased range of motion and aching pain…
Dr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgeryNerve SurgeryPatient Storiesperipheral neuropathysuccess storiesUncategorizedvideos
March 28, 2018

Surgical Nerve Decompressions Relieve Peripheral Neuropathy Pain

Nerve Surgery for Peripheral Neuropathy Pain James was in so much pain from Peripheral Neuropathy that on some days he couldn't get out of bed. Then he met Dr. Tim…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogHand/Arm Pain- Carpal Tunnel SyndromeNerve Surgerynews and eventssuccess storiesThoracic Outlet Syndromevideos
March 20, 2018

Decompressing Brachial Plexus to Relieve Pain of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Debilitating Pain from Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Ladonna came to see Dr. Tollestrup for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and evaluation of pain, paresthesias, and motor weakness involving the right shoulder girdle and…
Back PainDr. Tollestrup Blognerve decompression surgeryNerve Surgerypersistent pain after spine surgerysuccess storiesvideos
November 13, 2017

Low Back Pain Involving Superior Cluneal Nerve Compression

Low Back Pain Not Coming from the Spine Low back pain stemming from superior cluneal nerve entrapment is an underdiagnosed condition. Dr. Tollestrup has developed a surgical approach to help…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogNerve Surgerynews and eventspiriformis syndromeSciatica Pain/Piriformis Syndromesuccess storiesvideos
November 8, 2017

Removing Piriformis Muscle Heals Sciatica Pain

Dr. Tollestrup Doubles Up on Successful Surgeries To Heal Sciatica Pain We recently shared this story about Spencer Hawkins, a patient of Dr. Tollestrup’s who battled severe sciatica pain for…
Sharon is back to long walks and sleeping through the night thanks to surgery from Dr. Tollestrup to remove her Piriformis Muscle.Dr. Tollestrup Blogperipheral neuropathysuccess storiesvideos
July 11, 2017

Why the Peripheral Nervous System and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Are So Unknown and Misunderstood

Why Peripheral Nerve Surgery Is Not Widely Accepted Why most doctors don't know about peripheral nerve surgery is a complicated question and is at the heart of why so many of…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogHand/Arm Pain- Carpal Tunnel SyndromeNerve Surgerynews and eventsPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
May 11, 2017

Dr. Tollestrup Surgically Solves Peripheral Nerve Damage to Help Patient Regain Use of Her Hand

Dr. Tollestrup Repairs Peripheral Nerve Damage Through a Complex Surgery Finally Relief After Enduring Two Years of Pain and Three Botched Surgeries Corrine came to see Dr. Tollestrup because of…
Dr. Tollestrup BlogMigraine/Chronic HeadachesPatient Storiessuccess storiesvideos
March 9, 2017

Migraine Headaches Gone Thanks to Nerve Surgery with Dr. Tollestrup

Nerve Surgery Resolves Migraine Headaches for Michael Chronic or Migraine headaches are another area that Dr. Tim Tollestrup focuses on for peripheral Nerve Surgery. Injury or compression to nerves in the…
nerve surgeyrDr. Tollestrup Blognews and eventsvideos
February 15, 2017

Las Vegas Review Journal Story On Dr. Tollestrup Saving a Suicidal Vet Through Nerve Surgery

Dr. Tollestrup Featured in Las Vegas Review Journal for Successful Nerve Surgery on an Injured Veteran By PAUL HARASIM LAS VEGAS REVIEW-JOURNAL Las Vegas Review Journal covers story about how…
Chronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDr. Tollestrup BlogNerve SurgeryPatient Storiesvideos
December 26, 2016

Nerve Surgery Helps Vet Live Better Life

Successful Nerve Surgery Helps Injured Veteran Get a Second Chance at Life* Peripheral nerve surgery helps injured veteran Frank get his life back. Watch the incredibly inspiring story of Frank…
Chronic Pain After Surgery/TraumaDr. Tollestrup BlogNerve SurgeryPatient Storiesvideos
December 20, 2016

Nerve Surgery Gets Patient Back on Feet After Accident

Dr. Tollestrup Surgeries Get Randy Back to Work* Successful nerve surgery helped Randy get back to the job he loves. When randy suffered an injury driving a fork lift, his leg…

If you’re interested in seeing if we can help you in similar ways that we helped the patients in these videos, call us or fill out the form on this page.


We do not guarantee any specific results or outcomes for surgery, should our practice work on your behalf. Information on this website may be used as a reference for successes we’ve achieved for our patients, and not as an assurance or guarantee for similar results in all instances.